News

NEW 99 Cent SEED SALE Posted on 23 Feb 17:42 , 0 comments

I love these announcements!!!
We've added MORE new heirloom seeds @ Mary's Heirloom Seeds!


Greens and squash are a few of our garden favorites.  They are easy to grow and usually offer a tremendous harvest.  Swiss Chard for example can be harvested for months (even a year).  Our squash is usually so prolific that we are constantly giving it away by the bucketful!

Take a look at these beautiful new varieties. 

They're only 99 cents a pack thru MARCH 1st.

COCONUT COIR PELLETS are also on sale thru March 15

 

45 days.  Bibb is a fabulous tasting lettuce that is crisp, clean and easy to grow.  Bibb will hold longer in the heat than  Buttercrunch Bibb, yet still grows quickly in our cool weather.



 90 days.  Banana Melon produces a fruit that is long (18"-20") and shaped sort of like a torpedo.  Not what you would normally think of as a melon shape.  Fruit can weigh in excess of 5lbs. It has blue-grey skin that turns yellow as it matures.  Banana melons are smooth with very little netting.  In 1889 it was commonly available at farmer's markets in Philadelphia, New York and Boston.



An early ball-head type heirloom cabbage, Copenhagen Market is an excellent cabbage  that has been an favorite of gardeners, market growers and cabbage fans all over the world.  Copenhagen Market has literally set the standard as the model for all commercial cabbage varieties developed since.
 
Copenhagen Market produces a heavy yield of 4 to 5 pound, 7 inch round heads of cabbage.  Height of the plant is about 12-14" and width is about 25".



(Indeterminate) Heirloom from farmers in a Lebanese hill town. Huge pink beefsteak tomato: fruits typically weigh 16-24 oz., or even larger when well grown. A good choice for a gardener’s boast or county fair entry. Has a multidimensional sweet flavor that seems to be expressed best in northern areas. In southern areas the quality is more variable. Good foliage disease resistance.



55 days.  This patty pan type of squash dates back to the early 1900s.  The fruits are a greyish-green tint and have deeply scalloped edges.
Benning's Green Tint Scallop Squash can get pretty big but they are best harvested around 3-4 inches in diameter.



55 days.  Sugar Ann is considered one of the best early snap peas around.        
Dwarf vines only reach 2' long (not a bush), but are loaded with sweet, crisp, 2 1/2" peas.  Perfect for those with limited planting space.  We simply cannot get enough of these for stir fries.  They are so crisp and sweet we eat them raw in salads as well.


2 VARIETIES that aren't NEW but we've decided to offer
on sale as well thru MARCH 1st.


Don't miss out on our special on

THAT'S ALL FOR NOW!  HAPPY PLANTING!

http://www.facebook.com/pages/Marys-Heirloom-Seeds/229833070442449

Sign up for our E-Newsletter


HEIRLOOM TOMATO ANNOUNCEMENT & SALE Posted on 15 Feb 06:55 , 1 comment

We sent this out yesterday to our e-mail list but thought it would be nice to share to our blog as well.  Happy Planting!

Mary's Heirloom Seeds
Quick Links
Join Our List
A few favorites @MARY'S HEIRLOOM SEEDS
February 14, 2017
We are SUPER excited to announce the addition of several new (to us)
As promised, we're continuing to add heirloom varieties to our already unique selection at Mary's Heirloom Seeds.  As an added bonus, the varieties we are announcing today are on Sale thru February 19th!

HEIRLOOM TOMATO SEEDS added today!!!    

Seeds listed in this section are ON SALE thru February 19th.  
We have a $10 order minimum 
with the free shipping option. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
*Excellent for HOT climates*
 
 
If you're wondering what to plant, 
check out our
and 
Also ON SALE thru February 19th @ Mary's Heirloom Seeds




If you have additional questions please feel free to ask. 

 

Happy Planting,

 

Mary's Heirloom Seeds, P. O. Box 3763, Ramona, CA 92065

NEW for 2017 & 99 Cent Seed Pack SALE @ Mary's Heirloom Seeds Posted on 20 Jan 15:42 , 0 comments

   
Mary's Heirloom Seeds 
Quick Links
Join Our List
January 20, 2017

Are you already planning your 2017 garden?

This is going to be a LOOOOONG post.  Why?  Because we've added over 50 Heirloom seed varieties for 2017 @ Mary's Heirloom Seeds.  We are so excited to announce that we now offer over 440 varieties of heirloom seeds.  Woohoo!!!
 
99 CENT SEED PACKS

We're doing it once again...NEW heirloom seeds added today @ Mary's Heirloom Seeds and they're ON SALE for only 99 cents per pack thru January 23rd

SPARKLER WHITE TOP RADISH


WATERMELON RADISH


**NOT NEW but also on sale thru January 23rd**


HEIRLOOM SEEDS picture ABOVE are all on sale thru Monday, January 23rd @ midnight EST.
ALL NEW for 2017! 

Our official collection of NEW additions at 
Mary's Heirloom Seeds for 2017




















RED OF FLORENCE ONION


Hollow Crown Parsnip


Big Red Ripper Southern Pea


Lady Finger Cowpea


Mammoth Melting Sugar Pea


CORBACI PEPPER


Lemon Drop Pepper


Miniature Yellow Bell Pepper


Sweet Banana Pepper


Easter Egg Radish


Burgess Buttercup Squash


Ebony Acorn Squash


Fordhook Acorn Squash


Hubbard Blue Squash


Ronde De Nice Squash


WHITE SCALLOP SQUASH
**Also called Patty Pan squash**












Stay tuned for more information about planting and growing seeds!

If you have additional questions please feel free to ask.  

Happy Planting,

Mary's Heirloom Seeds, P. O. Box 3763, Ramona, CA 92065

http://www.facebook.com/pages/Marys-Heirloom-Seeds/229833070442449

Sign up for our E-Newsletter







NEW Seeds are 99 Cents A pack thru 1/14/17 Posted on 10 Jan 20:49 , 0 comments

99 Cent Seed pack Sale from Mary's Heirloom Seeds


Mary's Heirloom Seeds
Quick Links
Join Our List
January 10, 2017
I know it sounds crazy to offer a sale during our super busy season but I'm just SUPER EXCITED to offer these new varieties

If you have additional question, please ask
99 Cent Heirloom Seed packs
**ADDED TODAY**  

These are all new (to us) heirloom seed varieties added today.
Each variety listed below is ON SALE thru Saturday, January 14th at midnight EST

 
 Flame lettuce has a mild flavor and will add real color to any salad bowl.

Nice bush form that will not take up tons of space like the standard Buttercup form.
These turban type fruits have dark green skin with some light green/creamish lines running longitudinally.
Sweet, orange, string-less flesh. Usually between 3-4 fruits at 3 - 5 lb each. 
Great storage squash and a New England favorite.

  

 Neon, hot pink chard is so pretty and is perfect picked small for salads or larger for braising.

 
Ebony Acorn is a delicious dark acorn type squash that is early and second only in flavor to Hubbard.  It is adapted for use all over the United States.
Prolific 8' vines produce 1.5-2lb fruits that have thick walls and a small seed cavity. 
The flesh is deep-orange, fine-textured, tender, dry and sweet. 
More productive and larger-fruited than table queen.  Does well in poor soil conditions.



40 days.   A deep merlot colored leaf resembling an oak leaf with deep lobes. 
Excellent for baby leaf production.  Unlike some other reds, oakleaf maintains a mild flavor throughout the lettuce season.  Resistance to common mildews.
An old favorite summer squash from the South of France.  24-30" tall and 18" spread.  The flesh of this round, green zucchini is very tender and fine flavored, making it an ideal squash for stuffing.


JUST A REMINDER....This sale starts 1/10/17 and ends January 14th @ midnight EST


 MORE from our Growing Tips & Videos page!!!

MORE GARDENING TIPS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NEW for 2017 @MARY'S HEIRLOOM SEEDS
 





As always, if you have additional questions please feel free to ask!

 
If you have additional questions please feel free to ask. 
Happy Planting,
Mary's Heirloom Seeds, P. O. Box 3763, Ramona, CA 92065
http://www.facebook.com/pages/Marys-Heirloom-Seeds/229833070442449




BEST VEGGIES FOR HOMESTEAD GARDENS Posted on 05 Jan 16:31 , 2 comments

I've shared previous "best of" articles from Mary's Heirloom Seeds such as Mary's Top 10 with Companions and Heat Tolerant Veggies.
 
But how about homesteaders?  Some of you, myself included, are growing to become more self-sufficient.  We're also working on a soil-prep article so stay tuned for that
 
What are the Best Veggies for Homestead Gardens?
 
I'm starting with Radish because it's one of the first crops to mature in our garden.  As long as your soil has balanced organic matter, Radish is an easy crop to grow and usually pest resistant.  The Early Scarlet Globe Radish is heat tolerant and matures in as little as 22 days. The German Giant Radish matures in as little as 29 days and can be harvested small and early or let them grow as large as a tennis ball (no joke.  I've done it)
 
For a mild flavor, the French Breakfast Radish is an excellent variety.  For a longer growing, spicy option, the Japanese Minowase Daikon Radish
 
 
If you're looking for a good dual-purpose crop, Beans are your go-to homestead crop.  Some varieties can be picked early as a snap bean or left on the plant to mature for a nice dry bean (for soups, etc).
 
An excellent Dry Bean options is the Blue Speckled Tepary Bean, which can be traced all the way back to the Mayans and was a staple for Native Americans.  Additional and delicious dry bean options include Cannellini, Jacob's Cattle and Red Striped Greasy Snap Bean
 
Th Scarlet Runner Beans make a great fresh bean or soup bean.
 
 
 
Greens are arguable one of the easiest varieties to grow.  Depending on the variety, they can give very successful yields for several months.  Most popular with our customers are Little Gem, Tom Thumb, Rouge D'Hiver and Parris Island Cos Lettuce.
 
 
 
While it's listed as a GREEN on our site, we're separating Swiss Chard from lettuce because it's a MUST on our homestead. 
-We use Swiss Chard fresh in our salads
-We give some away for my sister's goats and chickens
-We sautee swiss chard with garlic and onions as a meal or snack AND use sauteed swiss chard in crustless quiche. YUM!!!
ALL of the Swiss Chards are delicious but the Ruby Red and Rainbow Chard are our favorites.
 
 
 
Here's another dual purpose for your homestead.  Glass Gem corn for example is a great popping corn and can also be ground to make cornmeal.  Floriani Red Flint Corn is a very unique, strong variety for cornmeal.  Blue Clarage Dent Corn can be picked and eaten in the earlier stages or grown longer to use as a cornmeal OR chicken treat. Sweet Corn varieties can be used right away, frozen or canned.  So many possibilities!
 
 
 
Even the pickiest of eaters might enjoy a nice beet green salad.  We grow beets almost year round here on our homestead.  The tops make a great salad.  Beets can be eaten fresh, roasted or canned.  Most Beets mature in 50-60 days, and are somewhat pest resistant.  Even if bugs eat the tops, the bulb usually survives.  Detroit Dark Red, Chioggio and Golden Beets have been our best producers so far.  The Early Wonder is a great early maturing variety.
 
 
 
Onions take about 5 – 8 months to mature from the time the seeds are planted, so you’ll want to begin them early in January or February.  If you are in an area that gets frost in winter, plant them indoors in pots or in a greenhouse to give them protection. Bunching onions are a faster maturing option.
 
 
For an early harvest, the Thessaloniki and German Lunchbox Tomatoes are fantastic producers.
 
Determinate VS. Indeterminate Tomatoes
Determinate varieties of tomatoes, also called "bush" tomatoes, are varieties that are bred to grow to a compact height (approx. 4 feet). They stop growing when fruit sets on the terminal or top bud, ripen all their crop at or near the same time (usually over a 2 week period).
 
Indeterminate varieties of tomatoes are also called "vining" tomatoes. They will grow and produce fruit until killed by frost and can reach heights of up to 10 feet although 6 feet is considered the norm. They will bloom, set new fruit and ripen fruit all at the same time throughout the growing season.
 
Our all-time favorite, heavy producing tomatoes are Amana's Orange, Cherokee Purple, Green Zebra and San Marzano
 
 
 
Sweet, Spicy, Stuffing, Frying, Pickling and so much more!!!  Peppers are a great crop for homesteaders.  Our favorite for an all-purpose pepper is the Cal Wonder Bell Pepper.  For a sweet (big) pepper, we like the Quadrato D'Asti Giallo Pepper.
HOT peppers are tougher to pick.  We grow as much as possible for hot sauce, pickling and our Organic bug spray.
 
Jalapeno is a great mild hot pepper
Serrano is a great hot pepper
Corbaci is a new, mild-hot pepper that we're growing this year.
Habanero is a great HOT pepper
Ghost Peppers are the hottest pepper we carry and they are not to be taken lightly.  They can cause severe reactions/discomfort if you're not careful.
 
 
Summer squash are usually a faster maturing option.  Summer Squash take longer to mature but usually store for longer than summer varieties.  Squash is a great addition to your homestead garden since they are heavy-producers and make seed saving a bit easier IF you are mindful of cross-pollination.  Black Beauty Zucchini and Golden Crookneck are our homestead favorites.  Spaghetti Squash and Butternut Squash are Winter Squash favorites.
 
For Pumpkins, the Small Sugar Pumpkin is a must.  This is a great pumpkin pie variety.  
 
 
 
Give Peas a chance!  But first, decide what type of pea you'd like.  Southern Peas, also called Crowder Peas are not your garden variety peas.  Southern Peas are used like you would a dry bean.  Our homestead favorite is the Whippoorwill Southern Pea.  Then you have Garden Peas, also called Shelling Peas, and these are great for canning and soups.  Sugar, Snow and Snap Peas are useful for homesteaders as well.
 
 
There are so many unique veggies available, too many to list in a single article.  We've gone over a few of our favorites.  We'd love to hear from YOU about your favorite homestead crops.

http://www.facebook.com/pages/Marys-Heirloom-Seeds/229833070442449




Growing Watermelon from Seed to Harvest Posted on 03 Jan 15:21 , 0 comments

Does the thought of sweet and Juicy summertime Watermelon get your mouth watering?  We love watermelon!

Mary's Heirloom Seeds offers several varieties of Watermelon.
Golden Midget Watermelon
 
Planting Watermelon Seeds
Indoors:
If you have a short growing season or want to get a head start, plant watermelon seeds indoors in individual containers or pots. We recommend using coconut coir pellets, which can be planted directly in the garden with minimal transplant shock. Plant one to two seeds per pot. 
Outdoors:
Sow watermelon seeds in hills or rows. For regular watermelons, sow three to four seeds per hill, spacing the hills eight to ten feet apart. Space the rows ten feet apart or more, if you have room. Thin watermelon seedlings in each hill, to two seedlings one week after they have germinated. When planting in rows, space the seeds four to six inches apart and thin seedlings to ten to twelve inches apart. For bush varieties, final spacing can be cut in half or even more if you are tight for space. 
Days to Germinate: 3-5 days
Days to Harvest: 65-85 days
Growing Conditions for Watermelon
Watermelon prefers full sun for healthy, strong vines. 

Companion plants for Watermelon

Planting corn with your watermelon will provide shade for the plants during the hottest time of the day. Allow about a foot between the corn plants so the watermelon plants still receive enough sun.

Young melon plants are susceptible to insect invasion, especially cucumber beetles. Once the plants mature, they can tolerate some leaf loss due to insects, but keeping companion plants nearby helps control swarms of pests. Cass County Master Gardeners recommend marigold, oregano and nasturtium as companion plants for melons. 

Diatomaceous Earth is a great organic tool to kill and deter pests.

Fertilize Watermelon as the vines begin to spread out and then again in a month.  Use Mary's Organic Plant food and Organic Alfalfa Meal Tea for all-around, organic nutrients.

Harvesting Watermelon
from almanac.com,  Dr. Bill Rhodes, professor of horticulture at Clemson University, offers the following advice on how to tell if watermelons are ripe:
  • Thump it. If the watermelon sounds hollow, it's ripe.
  • Look at the color on the top. The watermelon is ripe when there is little contrast between the stripes.
  • Look at the color on the bottom. A green watermelon will have a white bottom; a ripe melon will have a cream- or yellow-colored bottom.
  • Press on it. If the watermelon sounds like it gives a little, it's ripe. (Rhodes doesn't like this method because it can ruin the quality of the fruit.)
  • Check the tendril. If it's green, wait. If it’s half-dead, the watermelon is nearly ripe or ripe. If the tendril is fully dead, it's ripe or overripe; it’s not going to get any riper, so you might as well pick!
  • Stems should be cut with a sharp knife close to the fruit.
  • Watermelons can be stored uncut for about 10 days. If cut, they can last in the refrigerator for about 4 days. Wrap tightly in plastic.


http://www.facebook.com/pages/Marys-Heirloom-Seeds/229833070442449





Growing Dandelion from Seed Posted on 03 Jan 15:12 , 0 comments

Dandelion isn't just a pesky garden weed.  Did you know that eating Dandelion can actually be good for you?

At Mary's Heirloom Seeds we carry Dandelion Seeds.


Chicory greens have long, broad, dandelion-like leaves with an asparagus-like flavor. A rapid grower, the leaves and tender spring stalks can be used as early greens.
Germination: 45-70 days
Days to Maturity: 52-80 days 

About Dandelion
Dandelion greens contain vitamin C, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, beta carotene and fiber. They are actually more nutritious than most of the fruits and vegetables you can buy in the grocery store.
It is also touted as being beneficial to your liver, kidneys, blood and digestion. Not to mention that it supposedly helps with acne, weight-loss, blood pressure and cholesterol levels. It is nearly a perfect food.

From Global Healing Center
HERBAL PROPERTIES AND USES:
Highly nutritious and known to treat a variety of ailments, dandelion is a great plant to grow in your garden. From heart problems to acne, liver diseases to eye conditions, most people are unaware that this weed has higher amounts of potassium than bananas and more vitamin A than carrots. Dandelion is also reported to have anti-rheumatic capacities. It is also a powerful diuretic with additional laxative properties. Good for hepatic and gallbladder conditions, digestive complaints, as well as general constipation.


Growing Dandelion from Seed
Because dandelion is considered a weed, it doesn't take much effort to grow.  If you're looking for a low-maintenance garden green.

Plant seeds directly in the garden 1/4 inch deep in the soil in single rows, about 8 inches.  Plant the dandelion seeds in early spring in well-drained, fertile soil.

Harvesting Dandelion
Never harvest dandelions from a location that is near a road or has been treated with pesticides or other chemicals.  Harvest leaves as needed when they are a usable size.


Helpful Links

http://www.facebook.com/pages/Marys-Heirloom-Seeds/229833070442449





Growing Garden Huckleberry from Seed Posted on 03 Jan 14:16 , 0 comments

 Garden Huckleberries produce fruit the first year which is why they are a great berry to try in your home garden.
Baby Garden Huckleberry

I grow everything from seed!  It's not that difficult and that way I know exactly what I'm getting from start to finish.  All of the seeds I plant (from Mary's Heirloom Seeds) are untreated, organic, non-gmo heirloom seeds.

Starting Garden Huckleberry from Seed Plant seeds in moist soil and cover with approx 1/4 inch of soil.  Seeds should germinate within 2 weeks.  Seedlings should receive at least five hours of sun every day.  I start seeds in my laundry room where I have large windows and plenty of space.  Once the seedlings grow about 2 inches tall they will be transplanted to large pots. 


Plants should be bushy.  This one needed more fertilizer or compost.
Growing Conditions for Garden Huckleberry
Garden Huckleberries like rich soil and partial shade.  Adding compost or chicken manure will increase the plant yield.  I plant my Huckleberry when I plant my tomatoes and fertilize the same as well.  Growing Huckleberries are very easy and not much bothers the plant.  The plants have some cold tolerance and fruit may continue to ripen after light frosts.

Small basket of berries from 1 bush
Green fruit are mildly poisonous, just like potato leaves or green potatoes. The fruits do not taste like much when picked, sometimes they can can be bitter. A pleasing berry taste does come through surprising well when it is cooked with  sugar. It can be used as a viable substitute for blueberries in pies, jams and syrup.

Pests
This year I have found several tomato hornworms on my huckleberry plants.  I recommend planting Borage (an edible herb) around your Tomatoes AND Huckleberry plants to deter hornworms.
THESE are Tomato Hornworms and they get even bigger!

Diatomaceous Earth will help with any aphid issues you might have in the garden. 

Garden huckleberry can be mistaken for deadly nightshade, which is poisonous, so make sure of its identity before eating. I grow mine from a trusted seed source.
• Garden huckleberry's self-sown seedlings will provide you with new plants. Pull out all unwanted seedlings each year or they'll be everywhere. 

Harvesting Garden Huckleberries
Pick the berries when they are no longer shiny; ripe berries are usually a dull black or blue-black. 
Cook the fully ripe berries before eating; they may need a pinch of baking soda to remove bitterness. Add sugar to taste and some freshly grated lemon zest and lemon juice to brighten the flavor.


You can purchase heirloom Garden Huckleberry seeds

from Mary's Heirloom Seeds. That's all for now!  Any questions?


http://www.facebook.com/pages/Marys-Heirloom-Seeds/229833070442449





Growing Cauliflower from Seed to Harvest Posted on 03 Jan 13:47 , 0 comments

Although the Cauliflower is part of the Cabbage family, Cauliflower usually require more attention.  Cauliflower takes up quite a bit of space in the garden.
Purple of Sicily Cauliflower


Cauliflowers are a cool weather crop. Hot temperatures can reduce head development. In summer you can cover the head with the plants leaves.

When growing Cauliflower, the soil should be prepared well in advance, especially if you are enriching the soil with organic matter. If you are sowing the cabbage seeds in spring, prepare the soil in autumn by digging in plenty of well-rotted compost or manure.  The soil should have been dug deep. Cauliflower grows well in loamy, well drained soils.

Sow the seeds at 1/4-1/2 inch deep.  About 6 weeks after sowing the seedlings they should be ready to harden off before planting out. Harden the seedlings off a week before planting out by gradually increasing the amount of time the plants are left outside and the amount of sun the plants receive.
 
Snowball Self-Blanching Cauliflower


Companions for Cauliflower
Peas, beans, celery, oregano
(Peas and beans help fix nitrogen to supply to cauliflowers)


Do not plant cauliflower around Nasturtium, potato, strawberry and tomatoes  

My favorite cauliflower recipe:


"In the Garden" Recipes

DIATOMACEOUS EARTH (DE)


http://www.facebook.com/pages/Marys-Heirloom-Seeds/229833070442449






Our Gift to You! (Seriously, don't miss this) Posted on 28 Dec 11:18 , 0 comments

Since I've had SO MANY requests via email, I decided to add the Special Announcement to our blog.
BONUS...Since I made a mistake in the original email, I am EXTENDING THE OFFERS thru JANUARY 10TH (not December! OOPS)

GLASS GEM CORN *one of my favorites*



Oops! Didn't mean to send 2 emails in one day.
THIS was supposed to go out this morning...
It's been an amazing year at Mary's Heirloom Seeds. We've added so many new, rare heirloom seed varieties and had so much fun sharing new growing tips and articles.
YOU have made this year even more special.
THANK YOU!!!
Now we have a special gift from Mary
(Yes, there really is a Mary)
I'm giving away more seeds and organic plant  food than ever before.
Details below...
Every single order between NOW and January 10, 2017 will be entered into a drawing for a $25 SHOPPING SPREE at
We will choose TWO different winners
BONUS, we have a bunch of free goodies to offer NOW thru *January 10*
FREE *extra* SEEDS with all orders over $10
3 FREE *extra* SEED PACKS on all orders over $50
2 ounces of HUMATE Free with purchase of Mary's Root Boost,
  Endo-Mycorrhizae

2 ounces of AZOMITE Free with purchase of ANY Organic Plant Food

SALE on COCONUT COIR BRICKS
FREE *extra* SEEDS with all orders of Coconut Coir Pellets
SALE on all sizes of Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth

*All offers above are available thru January 10*
**Shopping spree offer available for US residents and is applicable to all seeds currently available at Mary's Heirloom Seeds.  No rain checks**
NEW SEEDS added this month:
NEW HEIRLOOM SEEDS ADDED TODAY

HEIRLOOM PEPPER SEEDS

NEW Necklaces added over the weekend
BLUE BUTTERFLIES

BUTTERFLIES

PIGLET

STAG MOON

VAN GOGH "STARRY NIGHT"

Mary's Heirloom Seeds | mary@marysheirloomseeds.com
(760) 870-4555
STAY CONNECTED:
Like us on Facebook
Follow us on Twitter
Mary's Heirloom Seeds, P. O. Box 3763, Ramona, CA 92065

http://www.facebook.com/pages/Marys-Heirloom-Seeds/229833070442449