Companion planting is based around the idea that certain plants can benefit others when planted next to, or close to one another.
Companion planting exists to benefit certain plants by giving them
pest control, naturally without the need to use chemicals, and in some
cases they can give a higher crop yield
companion planting is thought of as a small-scale gardening practice,
but it can be applied on larger-scale operations. It has been proven
that by having a beneficial crop in a nearby field that attracts certain
insects away from a neighboring field that has the main crop can prove
very beneficial. This action is called trap cropping.
All beans enrich the soil with
nitrogen fixed form the air, improving the conditions for whatever crop
you plant after the beans are finished. In general they are good company
for carrots, celery, chards, corn, eggplant, peas, potatoes, brassicas,
beets, radish, strawberry and cucumbers. Beans are great for heavy
nitrogen users like corn and grain plants because the nitrogren used up
by the corn and grains are replaced at the end of the season when the
bean plants die back. Summer savory deters bean beetles and improves
growth and flavor. Keep beans away from the alliums (onions).
What is a Brassica?
Members of brassica commonly used for food include cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and Turnips
for adding minerals to the soil. The leaves are composed of 25%
magnesium making them a valuable addition to the compost pile if you
don't care to eat them. Beets are also beneficial to beans with the
exception of runner beans. Runner or pole beans and beets stunt each
other's growth. Companions for beets are lettuce, onions and brassicas. Beets and kohlrabi grow perfectly together. Beets
are helped by garlic and mints. Garlic improves growth and flavor.
Rather than planting invasive mints around beets use your mint clippings
as a mulch.
Broccoli: Companions for broccoli are: Basil, Bush Beans, Cucumber, Dill
, Garlic, Hyssop, Lettuce
Nasturtium, Onion, Potato, Radish, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme and Tomato.
Celery, onions and potatoes improve broccolis' flavor when planted near
it. Broccoli loves plenty of calcium. Pairing it with plants that need
little calcium is a good combination such as nasturtiums and beets. Put
the nasturtiums right under the broccoli plants. Herbs such as rosemary,
dill and sage help repel pests with their distinct aromas. Foes:
Grapes, strawberries, mustards and rue.
dill, onions and potatoes are good companion plants. Celery improves
growth and health. Clover interplanted with cabbage has been shown to
reduce the native cabbage aphid and cabbageworm populations by
interfering with the colonization of the pests and increasing the number
of predatory ground beetles. Plant Chamomile with cabbage as it
Improves growth and flavor. Cabbage does not get along with
strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, rue, grapes, lettuce and
Their pals are leaf lettuce, onions
and tomatoes. Plant dill and parsnips away from carrots. Flax produces
an oil that may protect root vegetables like carrots from some pests.
One drawback with tomatoes and carrots: tomato plants can stunt the
growth of your carrots but the carrots will still be of good flavor.
Cauliflower: Plant with Peas, beans, celery and oregano (Peas and beans help fix nitrogen to supply to cauliflowers)
Avoid planting Cauliflower with Nasturtium, potato, strawberry and tomato.
include Bean, cabbage family, tomato, onion and roses. Don't overlook
chard's value as an ornamental plant in flower beds or wherever you have
room for it. Don't grow chard near cucurbits, melons, corn or herbs.
chive to your garden where you grow parsley, broccoli, cabbage,
eggplant, kohlrabi, mustard, peppers, potatoes, rhubarb, roses, squash,
strawberries or tomatoes will help those plants. Companion planting
chive with carrots will improve both the growth and flavor of your
carrots. Grapes benefit from chive's ability to repel aphids.
Beets and carrots are
good companion plants for chives. When chives are planted near carrots
that have been allowed to bloom, it confuses both onion and carrot
flies. Wild carrot or Queen Anne's Lace will provide a lovely addition
to your garden and provide the same benefits.
beans, cucumber, white geranium, lamb's quarters, melons, morning
glory, parsley, peanuts, peas, potato, pumpkin, soybeans, squash and
sunflower. A classic example is to grow climbing beans up corn while
inter-planting pumpkins. The corn provides a natural trellis for the
beans, pumpkins smother the weeds and helps corn roots retain moisture.
Corn is a heavy feeder and the beans fix nitrogen from air into the soil
however the beans do not feed the corn while it is growing. When the
bean plants die back they return nitrogen to the soil that was used up
by the corn. A win-win situation. Another interesting helper for corn is
the weed Pig's Thistle which raises nutrients from the subsoil to where
the corn can reach them. Keep corn away from celery and tomato plants
by at least 20 feet.
are great to plant with corn and beans. The three plants like the same
conditions: warmth, rich soil and plenty of moisture. Let the cucumbers
grow up and over your corn plants. Cukes also do well with peas, beets,
radishes and carrots. Radishes are a good deterrent against cucumber
beetles. Dill planted with cucumbers helps by attracting beneficial
predators. Nasturtium improves growth and flavor. Keep sage, potatoes
and rue away from cucumbers.
Eggplant: Plant with amaranth, beans, peas, spinach, tarragon, thyme and marigold. Eggplant is a member of the nightshade family and does well with peppers as they like the same growing conditions.
leeks near apple trees, carrots, celery and onions which will improve
their growth. Leeks also repel carrot flies. Avoid planting near
well with beets, broccoli, bush beans, pole beans, carrots, cucumbers,
onion, radish and strawberries. It grows happily in the shade under
young sunflowers. Dill and lettuce are a perfect pair. Keep lettuce away
from cabbage. Cabbage is a deterrent to the growth and flavor of
Melon: Companions are Corn, pumpkin, radish and squash. Other suggested helpers for melons are as follows: Marigold deters beetles, nasturtium
deters bugs and beetles. Oregano provides general pest protection.
Planting chamomile and summer savory
with onions improves their flavor. Other companions are carrot, leek,
beets, kohlrabi, strawberries, brassicas, dill, lettuce and tomatoes.
Intercropping onions and leeks with your carrots confuses the carrot and
onion flies! Onions planted with strawberries help the berries fight
disease. Keep onions away from peas and asparagus.
Peas: Plant with Beans, carrot, corn, cucumber, radish, turnips, spinach, mint and potatoes. Avoid planting with Onions.
Peppers, Bell (Sweet Peppers): Plant peppers near tomatoes, parsley, basil
marjoram, lovage, petunia and carrots. Onions make an excellent
companion plant for peppers. They do quite well with okra as it shelters
them and protects the brittle stems from wind. Don't plant them near
fennel or kohlrabi. They should also not be grown near apricot trees
because a fungus that the pepper is prone to can cause a lot of harm to
the apricot tree. Peppers can double as ornamentals, so tuck some into
flowerbeds and borders. Peppers can be harvested at any stage of growth,
but their flavor doesn't fully develop until maturity.
Peppers, Hot: Chili
peppers have root exudates that prevent root rot and other Fusarium
diseases. Plant anywhere you have these problems. While you should
always plant chili peppers close together, providing shelter from the
sun with other plants will help keep them from drying out and provide
more humidity. Tomato plants, green peppers, and okra are good
protection for them. Teas made from hot peppers can be useful as insect
sprays. Hot peppers like to be grouped with cucumbers, eggplant,
escarole, tomato, okra, Swiss chard and squash. Herbs
to plant near them include: basils, oregano, parsley and rosemary.
Never put them next to any beans, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower,
Brussels sprouts or fennel.
Pumpkin: Friends of pumpkin include corn, melon and squash. Marigold deters beetles. Nasturtium deters bugs, beetles
provides general pest protection. Again dill may help repel those
frustrating squash bugs. See squash entry for more tips.
for radishes are beet, bush beans, pole beans, carrots, chervil,
cucumber, lettuce, melons, nasturtium, parsnip, peas, spinach and
members of the squash family. Radishes may protect squash from squash
borers. Anything that will help keep them away is worth a try. Radishes
are a deterrent against cucumber beetles and rust flies. Chervil and
nasturtium improve radish growth and flavor. Planting them around corn
and letting them go to seed will also help fight corn borers. Chinese
Daikon and Snow Belle radishes are favorites of flea beetles. Plant
these at 6 to 12 inch intervals amongst broccoli. In one trial, this
measurably reduced damage to broccoli. Radishes will lure leafminers
away from spinach. The damage the leafminers do to radish leaves does
not stop the radish roots from growing, a win-win situation. Keep
radishes away from hyssop plants, cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts
and turnips. Radishes are a good indicator of calcium levels in the
soil. If your radish grows and only produces a stringy root you need
with peas and beans as they provide natural shade for the spinach. Gets
along with cabbage, cauliflower, celery, eggplant, onion, peas,
strawberries and fava bean. Plant spinach with squash. It's a good use
of space because by the time squash plants start to get big the spinach
is ready to bolt.
Squash: Companions: Beans, corn, cucumbers, icicle radishes, melon, mint, onions and pumpkin. Helpers: Borage deters worms, improves growth and flavor. Marigolds deters beetle. Nasturtium deters squash bugs and beetles.
Oregano provides general pest protection.
Dill may repel the squash bug that will kill your squash vines.
Generously scatter the dill leaves on your squash plants. Keep squash
away from potatoes.
: If there is a magic bullet of companion planting, it is likely the herb borage. Borage
helps a vast number of other plants. Aside from borage, however,
there are several other plants beneficial to strawberry plants. They
are: Bush Beans, Caraway and Lupine. Do not plant near cabbage.
Tomatoes: Friends of tomatoes are many and include: asparagus, basil
, bean, carrots, celery, chive, cucumber, garlic, head lettuce, marigold, mint, nasturtium, onion, parsley, pea, pepper, marigold
marigold and sow thistle. One drawback with tomatoes and carrots:
tomato plants can stunt the growth of your carrots but the carrots will
still be of good flavor. Basil repels flies and mosquitoes, improves
growth and flavor. Bee balm, chives and mint improve health and flavor. Borage deters tomato worm, improves growth and flavor.
Plant near: most garden crops
Keep away from: rue
Comments: improves the flavor and growth of garden crops, especially tomatoes and lettuce. Repels mosquitoes
Plant near: squash, strawberries, tomatoes
Keep away from:
Comments: repels tomato worms. Improves flavor and growth of companions.
mature, improves growth and health, mature dill retards tomato growth.
Enemies: corn and tomato are attacked by the same worm. Kohlrabi stunts
tomato growth. Keep potatoes and tomatoes apart as they both can get
early and late blight contaminating each other. Keep apricot, dill,
fennel, cabbage and cauliflower away from them. Don't plant them under
walnut trees as they will get walnut wilt: a disease that attacks
tomatoes growing underneath these trees.
Plant near: all garden crops
Keep away from:
Comments: stimulates vegetable growth and deters bean beetles, aphids, potato bugs, squash bugs, nematodes, and maggots.
Plant near: apples, beans, cabbage family, greenhouse crops, potatoes, pumpkins, radishes, squash
Keep away from:
Comments: repels aphids, potato bugs, squash bugs, striped pumpkin
beetles, and Mexican bean beetles and destroys white flies in
Plant near: cabbage family, carrots, tomatoes
Keep away from: cucumbers
Comments: deters cabbage moths and carrot flies. Invigorates tomato plants.